The Parkarma

The Parkarma
Early 1900s, Nihung Singhs in the Darshan Deori on the way to Darbar Sahib.

To conduct a Parkarma, one must circle around their Isht-Dev (while passing through all four cardinal directions). This represents that they are a sacrifice to Them (entire life revolves around Their Isht).
In Aad Gurbani, Parkarma is written as “Ghol Ghumaaee”
ਹਉ ਘੋਲੀ ਜੀਉ ਘੋਲ ਘੁਮਾਈ...
In Dasam Bani, Parkarma is found as:
ਦੇਵਕੀ ਲਾਲ ਪਰਿਕਰਮਾ ਕੀਨੀ॥

The other names for Parikarma are: Parkamiaa, Pardakhna, and also, Pardachhanaa. The meaning of Pardakhnaa and Pardachhanaa is: walking a complete circle around your Isht-Dev while keeping them to your Dachhan (right side). We get this definition from Sanskrit Granths.
This is why most people keep Guru Granth Sahib Ji to their right when they do Parkarma but this practice started from Sanskrit Granths. When this word was made, our Brahman brothers used to conduct Parkarma around Vedas and Murtis (idols) as a form of worshipping them. At that time, a Chhatri (of warrior caste) only had the right to listen to the Vedas but was not allowed to worship nor conduct a Parkarma. Kalgidhar Maharaj created the Khalsa as Chhatri as understood in Their Writings:
ਛਤ੍ਰੀ ਕੋ ਪੂਤ ਹੋਂ ਬਾਮਨ ਕੋ ਨਹਿ
ਕੈ ਤਪੁ ਆਵਤ ਹੌਂ ਜੁ ਕਰੋਂ॥
After defining the Khalsa as warriors, Maharaj had commanded: the Worship of Gurbani like the Brahmans carried out, doing honest work like Vaishyas, fighting in battles like the Chattris, and doing seva like Sudras. They infused all l four qualities into the Khalsa. Satguru Ji also gives the following Bachan:
ਛੱਤ੍ਰੀ ਸਭੈ, ਕ੍ਰਿਤ ਬਿਰਨ ਕੇ, ਇਨਹੂੰ ਪੈ ਕਟਾਛ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾ ਕੈ ਨਿਹਾਰੋ॥
All of the Khalsa are Chhatri and these Chhatris' actions are that of Brahmans. They worship Prabhu and also fight in battles.
Then the Khalsa began worshipping Their 3 Isht-Devs. When Khalsa conducts Parkarma of Guru Granth Sahib Ji, they keep their Shastars towards Maharaj and by doing so, complete Parkarma of Two of their Isht Devs. Other traditions (Hindu and Muslims) do clockwise parkarma. Guru’s Nihungs do counterclockwise parkarma to prove they are unique from the others according to Kalgidhar Maharaj Ji’s Bachan:
ਜਬ ਲਗ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਰਹੈ ਨਿਆਰਾ॥
ਤਬ ਲਗ ਤੇਜ ਦੇਂਓ ਮੈਂ ਸਾਰਾ॥
ਜਬ ਇਹ ਗਹੈ ਬਿਪਰਨ ਕੀ ਰੀਤਿ॥
ਮੈ ਨ ਕਰੋਂ ਇਨ ਕੀ ਪਰਤੀਤਿ॥

The meaning of Biparan is Brahman. Secondly, Nihung’s Parkarmey are counterclockwise based on naturally counterclockwise rotating things (description in Asa Di Vaar):
ਕੋਲੂ ਚਰਖਾ; ਚਕੀ ਚਕੁ॥ ਥਲ ਵਾਰੋਲੇ; ਬਹੁਤੁ ਅਨੰਤੁ ॥
ਲਾਟੂ ਮਾਧਾਣੀਆ; ਅਨਗਾਹ॥ ਪੰਖੀ ਭਉਦੀਆ; ਲੈਨਿ ਨ ਸਾਹ ॥
Whether it is the earth, whirlwinds, or other things made by humans - all of these natural creations spin from the right to left.
Nirmale Mahapurakhs or Sant Samaaj (that don’t wear Kirpans) but believe Guru Granth Sahib Ji as an Isht-Dev, they do Parkarma by keeping Maharaj on their right based on their ancient traditions. Nihung Singhs do Parkarma counterclockwise. There are historical points such as when Aurangzeb was doing Left sided Parkarma of Kaaba, then Kalgidhar Maharaj - through Their Surati - did right sided Parkarma to grab hold of Aurangzeb. Secondly, in Anandpur Sahib, there was a thief that kept doing clockwise Parkarma of Kalgidhar Maharaj. Since Nihung Singhs did counterclockwise parkarma, they caught the thief as the odd one out. Puratan Singhs tell us that Nihung Singhs did counterclockwise Parkarma of Kalgidhar Maharaj and while doing so, showed Maharaj their Shastars.
Please forgive for any mistakes.
Daas is in Your service Khalsa Ji.

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